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Polynomial Functions
Division Algorithm In this page we show how to divide one polynomial by another. We first explain what it means to divide one polynomial by another. Let and be two polynomials . To divide by means to find two additional polynomials and such that where the degree of is less than the degree of . The polynomial is called the quotient and the polynomial is called the remainder. The polynomial doing the dividing, , is called the divisor, and the polynomial being divided, , is called the dividend. 
Example 1: Before looking at an example involving
polynomials, let’s look at an example involving integers. Divide 27 by 4. Solution : Remember, to divide 27 by 4, means to find two integers. The quotient, which tells us the largest number of times 4 goes into 27, and the remainder which tells us how much is left over. To find the quotient we list multiples of 4. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 Looking at the list we see that the largest number of times 4 goes into 27 is six. The remainder is . Thus, we have . The quotient is 6 and the remainder is 3. 
Example 2: Divide the polynomial
by
the polynomial . Solution: The first step is to write each polynomial so that the exponents are decreasing in size. is already in that order, but we need to write as . The next step is to display the two polynomials as follows
What do we have to multiply x by to get 3x^{2}? The answer is 3x. The entire procedure is shown below. In a) we write 3x above the horizontal line,
because 3x times x equals 3x^{2}; 3x^{2} is then subtracted from the 
Historical Comment: The use the word algorithm
means a step by step breakdown of a complicated mathematical procedure . The word comes from the name of a famous Islamic astronomer/mathematician, , who is considered the founder of algebra. In fact the word algebra comes from the title of a famous book, AlJabrwaalMuqabilah, which was written by . Example 3: Divide the polynomial by the polynomial . Solution: First a few observation about what the quotient and remainder have to look like . • The remainder is a polynomial of degree one or less because the divisor, , is a polynomial of degree 2. The remainder is a polynomial of degree less than the degree of the divisor. Hence its degree is 1 or less. • The quotient is a polynomial of degree 1 because the leading term of the divisor is 3x^{2} and the leading term of the dividend is 4x^{3}. Thus, we need to multiply 3x^{2} by to get 4x^{3}, and the degree of is 1. Another way to get this is to subtract the degree of the divisor from the degree of the dividend. • The computations are shown below:
• The row
is obtained by multiplying (the divisor) by
. and 
Example 4: Divide the polynomial
by
the polynomial
. Solution: Before we show the details of the division process. Let’s see what we can surmise about the remainder and quotient. • The degree of the quotient is 3, because . The leading coefficient of the quotient is 3 because 6 equals 3 times 2. That is, . • The degree of the remainder is no more than 1, as the degree of the divisor is 2. It is possible that the degree is 0, but we can’t know for sure without doing the actual computations. • In the details below, notice that we included in the dividend the missing terms. That is the missing term x^{4} is included as 0x^{4}, etc. This is done to help eliminate computational errors.
The quotient is and the remainder is . 
Example 5: Divide
by . Solution: Notice that the degree of the quotient is 2 and its leading term is 1. The remainder must be a constant, since it will be a polynomial of degree less than 1.
The remainder is 0 and the quotient is . This can also be written as or Notice that since the remainder is zero, the dividend is a multiple of the divisor. 
Here we state the division algorithm for
polynomials, and discuss synthetic division . Synthetic division is a shorthand way to divide a polynomial by a polynomial of the form x  c. Note this last polynomial has degree 1 and its leading coefficient is also 1. Synthetic division is only used when the divisor is a polynomial of degree 1 with leading coefficient 1 also. The Division Algorithm Let and be any two polynomials. Then there exist unique polynomials and , where the degree of is less than the degree of , such that is called the quotient, the remainder, the divisor, and is called the dividend. In the previous pages we showed how to calculate the quotient and remainder. So the only thing new in the above statement is the uniqueness of the quotient and remainder. If the divisor is a polynomial of degree 1, with leading coefficient also 1, (the divisor is of the form x  c,) then there is a process called synthetic division which enables us to find the quotient and remainder fairly easily. In the example below we divide by the polynomial . In fact we do the division twice. The first time using long division and the second time using synthetic division. 
Example 6: Divide
by . Solution:
The long division of
by
should be
clear by now. However the process of synthetic 
Suppose we divide by x
 c, then the remainder
is a constant k, which may be zero, and we have the equality If we evaluate this equality at , we get . Ohhh, the remainder when is divided by is . This is important, make sure you understand and remember it. 
Question: If is divided by x
 1,
what is the remainder? Answer: If is divided by x  1, the remainder is Question: If is divided by x + 1, what is the remainder? Answer: If is divided by x + 1, the remainder is 
For complicated polynomials if the value of
is desired it is sometimes easier to use synthetic division to calculate the remainder, and then use the fact that the remainder is . Although, since we now have ready access to computers and calculators, evaluating polynomials is an easy task. Example 7: Using synthetic division, divide by . Solution: We take notice that the degree of the quotient is 3 and that the x^{3} term is missing in , but we’ve included it below by placing a zero in the top row.
Thus, the quotient equals and the remainder equals 74. 
Example 8: Using synthetic division divide
by
. Solution: We have to be careful here. Synthetic division assumes that we are dividing by x  c. So in this particular example .
The quotient equals , the remainder equals  745, and . 
Example 9: Divide
, by
using synthetic division. Solution: Note that
The quotient equals , the remainder equals 0, and 
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