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# The Rational Numbers

Properties of Rational Number Multiplication

Let and be any rational numbers .

• Closure: is a rational number.

• Commutative:

• Associative:

• Identity: where 1 can be represented as m/m, for m ≠ 0

Multiplicative Inverse : ,  where the multiplicative inverse is called the
reciprocal
.

Distributive Property :

o Over Subtraction :

 Division Let and be any rational numbers. Then

There are three methods used to perform rational number division , as the following
theorem illustrates.

 Theorem Let and be any rational numbers where is nonzero. Then the following are equivalent .

Ordering Rational Numbers
There are four equivalent methods to order rational numbers.

• Number- line Approach : if and only if a/b occurs to the left of c/b on the
number line.

Common -Positive-Denominator Approach: Let b > 0 . Then if and only if
a < c .

Addition Approach : if and only if there is a positive rational number p/q
such that Alternatively, if and only if is positive.

• Cross-Multiplication Approach: Let b > 0 and d > 0 . Then if and only if

Properties of Ordering Rational Numbers
• Transitive: If and , then