# Fractions

# Fractions, Decimals, and Percents

**Fractions, Decimals, and Percents**

Unit 5 focuses on naming numbers as fractions , decimals, and percents. Your
child will use pattern blocks to

review basic fraction and mixed-number concepts as well as notations. Your child
will also formulate rules for

finding equivalent fractions.

In Fourth Grade Everyday Mathematics, your child learned to convert easy
fractions, such as and 3/4, to

equivalent decimals and percents . For example, 1/2can be renamed as 0.5 or 50%.
Your child will now learn

(with the use of a calculator) how to rename any fraction as a decimal and as a
percent.

Unit 5 also introduces two new games: Estimation Squeeze, to practice estimating
products; and Frac-Tac-Toe,

to practice converting fractions to decimals and percents. These games, like
others introduced earlier, are

used to reinforce arithmetic skills . Both games use simple materials
(calculator, number cards, and pennies or

other counters) so you can play them at home.

Your child will study data about the past and compare it with current
information as the American Tour

continues.

**Please keep this Family Letter for reference as your child works through Unit
5.**

**Vocabulary**

Important terms in Unit 5:

**bar graph** A graph that uses horizontal or vertical

bars to represent data.

** circle graph ** A graph in which a circle and its

interior are divided through its center into parts to

show the parts of a set of data. The whole circle

represents the whole set of data.

**denominator** The number below the line in a

fraction. In a fraction representing a whole, or ONE,

divided into equal parts, the denominator is the total

number of equal parts. In the fraction a/ b ,b is the

denominator.

**equivalent fractions** Fractions that have

different denominators but name the same amount.

For example, 1/2 and 4/8 are equivalent fractions.

**improper fraction** A fraction whose numerator is

greater than or equal to its denominator. For

example, and
are improper fractions. In

Everyday Mathematics, improper fractions are

sometimes called “top-heavy” fractions.

**mixed number** A number that is written using

both a whole number and a fraction. For example,

is a mixed number equal to

**numerator **The number above the line in a

fraction. In a fraction representing a whole, or ONE,

divided into equal parts, the numerator is the

number of equal parts that are being considered. In

the fraction a/b , a is the numerator.

**percent** (%) Per hundred, or out of a hundred. For

example, 48% of the students in the school are boys

means that, on average, 48 out of every 100 students

in the school are boys.

**Percent Circle** A tool on the Geometry Template

that is used to measure or draw figures that involve

percents, such as circle graphs.

**repeating decimal** A decimal in which one digit

or a group of digits is repeated without end. For

example, 0.333... and are repeating
decimals.

**Do-Anytime Activities
**

To work with your child on the concepts taught in this unit and in previous units, try

these interesting and rewarding activities.

1. Help your child find fractions, decimals, and percents in the everyday world—in

newspaper advertisements, on measuring tools, in recipes, in the sports section of the

newspaper, and so on.

2. Over a period of time, have your child record daily temperatures in the morning and

in the evening. Keep track of the temperatures in a chart . Then have your child make

a graph from the data . Ask questions about the data. For example, have your child

find the differences in temperatures from morning to evening or from one day to

the next.

3. Practice using percents in the context of tips. For example, have your child calculate

1/10 or 10% of amounts of money. Invite your child to find the tip the next time the

family goes out for dinner.

4. Ask your child to identify 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional shapes around the house.

**Building Skills through Games**

In Unit 5, your child will practice operations and
computation skills by playing the following games.

For detailed instructions, see the Student Reference Book.

**Estimation Squeeze** See Student Reference Book, page 304.

This is a game for two players who use a single calculator. The game provides
practice in

estimating products.

**Frac-Tac-Toe** See Student Reference Book, pages 309–311.

This is a game for two players. Game materials include 4 each of the number
cards 0–10, pennies or

counters of two colors, a calculator, and a gameboard. The gameboard is a 5-by-5
number grid that

resembles a bingo card. Several versions of the gameboard are shown in the
Student Reference Book.

Frac-Tac-Toe helps students practice converting fractions to decimals and
percents.

**Fraction Of** See Student Reference Book, pages 313 and 314.

This is a game for two players. Game materials include 1 deck each of Fraction
Of Fraction Cards and Set

Cards, the Fraction Of Gameboard, and a record sheet. This game provides
practice with multiplication of

fractions and whole numbers.

**Fraction/Percent Concentration** See Student Reference Book, page 315.

This game helps students memorize some of the easy fraction/percent
equivalencies. Two or three players

use 1 set of Fraction/Percent Concentration tiles and a calculator to play.

**Fraction Top–It** See Student Reference Book, page 316.

This game is for 2–4 players. Game materials include 1 deck of 32 Fraction
Cards. This game provides

practice with comparing fractions.

**As You Help Your Child with Homework**

As your child brings assignments home, you might want to go over the
instructions together,

clarifying them as necessary. The answers listed below will guide you through
this unit’s

Study Links.

**Study Link 5 1**

c. Jen paid 2/5 of the bill: 8 ÷2 =4. So that

means each fifth of the total was $4. Then

3/5 must be $12. And $12+ $8= $20.

**Study Link 52**

**Study Link 53**

**Study Link 54**

**Study Link 55**

**Study Link 56**

Study Link 57

Sample answers given for Problem 1–5.

**Study Link 58**

**Study Link 59**

2. Bar graph

3. Line graph ; Temperature went up and down.

**Study Link 510
**

1. a. 50% b. 15% c. 35%

3. 25% of the students in my class have

skateboards. 25% have in-line skates. 50%

have bicycles.

**Study Link 5
11
**

Check your child’s circle graph.

**Study Link 5
12
**

1. Mona ate 1 more cookie than Tomas.

3/8 of 24 is9; but 2/5 of 25 is 10.

2. 12 students were sick. If 2/3 is 24, that means

1/3 is 12 students. So that means the rest of the

class, or 1/3 of the class, or 12 students, is sick.

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