# Math Glossary

**Base**—a number used as a repeated factor in an exponential expression.
In 85, 8 is the base number.

**Base 10**—see Decimal.

** Binary system **—one of the simplest numbering systems. The base of the
binary system is 2, which means

that only the digits 0 and 1 can appear in a binary representation of any
number.

**Circumference**—the distance around the outside of a circle.

**Composite number**—any integer that can be divided evenly by a number other
than itself and 1. All numbers

are either prime or composite.

**Counting numbers**—include all whole numbers, with the exception of 0.

**Decimal**—a number in the base 10 number system. Each place value in a
decimal number is worth ten times

the place value of the digit to its right.

** Denominator **—the bottom number in a fraction. The denominator of 1/2 is 2.

**Diameter**—a chord that passes through the center of the circle and has
endpoints on the circle.

**Difference**—the result of subtracting one number from another.

**Divisible by**—capable of being evenly divided by a given number, without a
remainder.

**Dividend**—the number in a division problem that is being divided. In 32 ÷
4 = 8, 32 is the dividend.

**Even number**—a counting number that is divisible by 2.

** Expanded notation **—a method of writing numbers as the sum of their units
(hundreds, tens, ones, etc.).

The expanded notation for 378 is 300 + 70 + 8.

**Exponent**—a number that indicates an operation of repeated
multiplication. For instance, 3^{4} indicates that

the number 3 should be multiplied by itself 4 times.

**Factor**—one of two or more numbers or variables that are being multiplied
together.

**Fractal**—a geometric figure that is self-similar; that is, any smaller piece of
the figure will have roughly the same

shape as the whole.

**Improper fraction**—a fraction whose numerator is the same size as or larger than
its denominator.

Improper fractions are equal to or greater than 1.

**Integer**—all of the whole numbers and negatives too. Examples are −3, −2, −1, 0,
1, 2, and 3. Note that integers

do not include fractions or decimals.

** Multiple of **—a multiple of a number has that number as one of its factors; 35 is
a multiple of 7; it is also a

multiple of 5.

** Negative number **—a real number whose value is less than zero.

** Numerator **—the top number in a fraction. The numerator of 1/4
is 1.

**Odd number**—a counting number that is not divisible by 2.

**Percent**—a ratio or fraction whose denominator is assumed to be 100, expressed
using the % sign; 98% is equal

to 98/100.

**Perimeter**—the distance around the outside of a polygon.

**Polygon**—a closed two-dimensional shape made up of several line segments that are
joined together.

**Positive number**—a real number whose value is greater than zero.

**Prime number**—a real number that is divisible by only two positive factors: 1 and
itself.

** Product **—the result when two numbers are multiplied together.

**Proper fraction**—a fraction whose denominator is larger than its numerator.
Proper fractions are equal

to less than 1.

**Proportion**—a relationship between two equivalent sets of fractions in the form

**Quotient**—the result when one number is divided into another.

** Radical **—the symbol used to signify a root operation.

**Radius**—any line segment from the center of the circle to a point on the circle.
The radius of a circle is equal

to half its diameter.

** Ratio **—the relationship between two things, expressed as a proportion.

** Real numbers **—include fractions and decimals in addition to integers.

**Reciprocal**—one of two numbers which, when multiplied together, give a product of
1. For instance, since

is equal to 1,
3/2
is the reciprocal of
2/3.

**Remainder**—the amount left over after a division problem using whole numbers.
Divisible numbers always

have a remainder of zero .

**Root ( square root )**—one of two (or more) equal factors of a number. The square
root of 36 is 6, because

6 × 6 = 36. The cube root of 27 is 3 because 3 × 3 × 3 = 27.

** Simplify terms **—to combine like terms and reduce an equation to its most basic
form.

** Variable **—a letter, often x, used to represent an unknown number value in a
problem.

**Whole numbers**—0, 1, 2, 3, and so on. They do not include negatives, fractions,
or decimals.

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