# Math 236 Chapter Outline

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**7.1 One-to-One Functions; Inverses
**•

**Definition and properties of one -to-one functions:**Algebraic definition of one-to-

one and its contrapositive. Graphical interpretation of one-to-one. Functions that

are always increasing or always decreasing are one-to-one (why?). Be able to use all

three of these methods to determine if a function is one-to-one.

•

**Definition, properties, and graphs of inverse functions:**Algebraic definition of

inverse function. Graphical relationship between a function and its inverse. A function

has an inverse if and only if it is one-to-one. Properties of one-to-one functions (for

example, (a, b) is on the graph of f (x) if and only if (b, a) is on the graph of f' (x)).

Domains and ranges of inverse functions. Be able to calculate the inverse of a one-to-one

function algebraically, and graph the inverse of a function given the graph of the

original function.

•

**Derivatives of inverse functions:**Know and be able to prove and explain the

formula for the derivative of an inverse function. Be able to use this formula to

calculate the derivative of the inverse of a function at a given point (even if you are

unable to find an equation for the inverse function).

7.2 The Logarithm Function , Part I

7.2 The Logarithm Function , Part I

•

**Definition and properties of general logarithm functions:**Definition of a logarithm

function in general. Know and be able to prove the properties that follow

from the definition of a logarithm function. Understand the steps of the proof that

the derivative of a logarithm function is always a constant times .

**•**

**Definition properties, and graph of ln x:**Be able to explain how we chose a

"natural" logarithm function by setting f'(1) = 1. Know the definition of the natural

logarithm function (as a definite integral), and know how we got that definite integral.

Be able to approximate values of ln x using this definition (and a Riemman sum ).

Algebraic and graphical properties of ln x, domain and range of ln x, and arguments

why these things are true. Definition of the number e and its relationship to ln x.

Solve equations involving ln x.

•

**The derivative of ln x:**Use the definition of ln x and the "Very Important Theorem"

to find the derivative of ln x. Be able to differentiate complicated functions that involve

ln x.

**7.3 The Logarithm Function, Part II
**

•

**The derivative of**: Split into a piecewise function to see that its derivative

is .Know the graph of and why we were interested in finding its derivative

(rather than just the derivative of ln x). Note that this derivative formula does not

tell us what the integral of ln x or should be.

•

**The integral of**: Knowing the above tells us how to antidifferentiate . Understand

the difference between the fact that the antiderivative of is

and the fact that the definition of ln x involves a definite integral of . Be able to

do integrals that involve and , including u-substitution problems. As with

all sections having to do integration, know how to do associated volume and position/

velocity/acceleration problems.

**•**

**Integrating the trigonometric functions :**The information above can be used to

integrate the four trig functions whose integrals we did not already know. You do not

need to memorize the integrals of tan x, cot x, sec x, and csc x, but you must know

how to calculate them using u-substitution and the integral of .

•

**Graphing review:**Be able to sketch the graph of a function (involving ln x in

particular) by examining its first and second derivatives and its behavior at the "ends"

of its domain. This includes identifying intervals of increasing/decreasing and concave

up/down as well as finding local and global extrema, inflection points, points of non-

differentiability, and asymptotes.

•

**Logarithmic differentiation:**Know the formula for differentiating a long product,

and be able to prove this formula using logarithmic differentiation. Be able to apply

this formula to differentiate long products (or product/quotient combinations).

7.4 The Exponential Function

7.4 The Exponential Function

•

**The definition of e**Given any x, know the definition of e

^{x}, even for irrational x:^{x}

as the unique number whose natural logarithm is x. Why did we need this definition

(for irrational numbers x in particular)? Why does this definition imply that e

^{x}is the

inverse of ln x?

•

**Properties and graph of**

**e**: Be able to prove the functional and algebraic properties

^{x}of e

^{x}using the definition of e

^{x }and the fact that e

^{x}and ln x are inverses.

•

**The derivative of e**Prove that the derivative of e

^{x}:^{x}is e

^{x}directly (using implicit

differenitation) and by using the formula for the derivative of an inverse function. Be

able to differenitate complicated functions that involve e

^{x}, and use this information

to sketch graphs of such functions. Know how to solve certain limits by recognizing

them as derivatives of exponential functions.

•

**The integral of e**The above information tells us the integral of e

^{x}:^{x}. Know this

and be able to use it in various integration problems, including applications.

**7.5 Arbitrary Bases; Other Powers**

•** Definition and properties of x ^{r}, even for irrational r:** Know the
definition of x

^{r}

involving the exponential and logarithmic functions. Why did we need this definition

(in particular for irrational x)? Prove properties of x

^{r}using this definition and known

properties of logarithmic and exponential functions.

•

**The derivative and the integral of x**Prove the power rule by using the definition

^{r}:of x

^{r}above. Be able to use this rule. Know and be able to justify the integral formula

for x

^{r}, and be able to integrate functions involving x

^{r}.

**•**

**Definition, properties, and graphs of general exponential functions**

**b**Know

^{x}:definition of b

^{x}(in terms of e

^{x}and logarithms, as we did for x

^{r}). Know how graphs

of b

^{x}compare to each other and in particular to the graph of e

^{x}. Why do we assume

b > 0 and b ≠ 1? Algebraic properties of b

^{x}are proved the same way we proved those

for x

^{r}. Be able to convert from b

^{x}to e

^{kx}and vice-versa.

•

**The derivative and the integral of b**Know and be able to prove the "exponential

^{x}:rule" derivative formula for b

^{x}(using the definition of b

^{x}). Do not confuse this with

the formula for when the exponent is in the base. Know and justify the formula for the

integral of b

^{x}. Be able to use the derivative and integral of b

^{x}in various calculations.

•

**Derivatives of functions with variables in the base and exponent:**Use logarithmic

differentiation (take ln of both sides and apply implicit differentiation) to find

the derivatives of functions with a variable in the exponent and the base. Do not try

to apply the power rule or exponential rule to these functions.

•

**Definition, properties, and graphs of general logarithmic functions**:

Definition of in terms of ln x and ln b. Know and prove properties of

using the definition and properties of ln x. Be able to calculate certain values of

exactly by hand using these properties.

•

**The derivative of**: Know and be able to prove the formula for the derivative

of . Be able to use this both in differentiation problems and integration problems

with u-substitution. Note that we do not know the integral of.

**7.6 Exponential Growth and Decay**

•

**"The rate of change is proportional to the quantity":**Know and be able

to prove that f'(x) = kf (x) if and only if f (x) is an exponential function f (x) =

Ce

^{kx}. One direction is easy (just differentiate any exponential functions). The other

direction involves solving the equation f' (x)- k f (x) = 0. Be able to do this given the

hint that you will need to multiply both sides of the equation by e

^{-kx}.

•

**Doubling time and half-life:**A function is exponential if and only if it has a

constant doubling time or half life. Be able to explain what I mean by "constant"

here. Be able to find doubling time or half-life given a particular exponential functions.

Show that doubling time and half-life depend only on the continuous growth constant

k.

•** Yearly percentage growth and the continuous growth
constant:** Know the

difference between the yearly percentage growth rate and the continuous growth
rate.

The first involves the b in Cb^{x}, and the second is equal to the k in Ce^{kx}. Know in
a

word problem which of these is being discussed.

• **Solving word problems involving exponential growth and decay:** Be able to

identify problems where the rate of growth is proportional to the quantity, or
where

the function has a constant doubling time or half-life. In these problems the
quantity

is always an exponential function. Be able to find this function (by finding k and
C)

and find past or future values, doubling time or half-life of the quantity. This
includes

in particular population growth, radioactive decay, and (continuously)
compounded

interest.

7.7 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions

•** Domains and ranges of the six inverse trigonometric functions:** Know how

(and why) we restrict the domains of the six trigonometric functions so we can
obtain

inverses. Define the six inverse trigonometric functions as the inverses of these
restricted

domain functions. Know domains and ranges of all six inverse trig functions.

Be sure you understand the difference between the notation sin^{-1} x and sin^{2} x.

•** Properties and graphs of the six inverse trigonometric functions:**
Properties

of the inverse trig functions follow from their definition as the inverses of the
(restricted)

trig functions. Be able to use these and know when they apply and when

they do not. Be able to sketch the graphs of these inverse trig functions by
flipping

the graphs of the restricted trig functions over the y = x line .

**
**•

**Calculating exact values of trig and inverse trig functions:**Use the unit circle

to calculate exact values of the trig functions and the inverse trig functions for values

that involve angles or side lengths (respectively) of the or 4 .

Obviously you need to memorize the side lengths of these triangles to do this. Keep in

mind the domains and ranges when calculating values of inverse trig functions. Know

how to convert degrees into radians and vice-versa.

•

**Derivatives of the six inverse trigonometric functions:**Use implicit differentiation

to find the derivatives of the inverse trig functions. Use triangles to rewrite these

derivatives in an algebraic form. Memorize the algebraic forms of these derivatives

and be able to use them.

•

**Integrals involving inverse trig functions and their derivatives:**Be able to

do integrals involving u-substitutions with inverse trig functions and integrals that

you can recognize as the derivatives of inverse trig functions. Be able to convert an

integrand like, for example, by algebra and u-substitution into an integrand

that is the derivative of an inverse trig function.

**7.8 The Hyperbolic Sine and Cosine**

•** Definitions of hyperbolic sine and cosine:** Know the definitions and be
able to

pronounce the names of sinh x and cosh x.

**
**•

**Derivatives of hyperbolic sine and cosine:**Know and be able to prove the

derivative formulae for sinh x and cosh x. How does the derivative relationship between

sinh x and cosh x motivate their names? (In other words, why give these functions

these trig-sounding names when they involve e

^{x}?) Differentiate functions involving

hyperbolic sine and cosine using either their definitions or their derivative formulae.

•

**Properties and graphs of hyperbolic sine and cosine:**Graph sinh x and cosh x

using their derivatives and properties. How do their graphs compare to the graph of

and why?

•

**Applications, Identities, and Hyperbolae:**Be able to do word problems and

prove identities involving sinh x and cosh x. Know how sinh x and cosh x are related

to a hyperbola (just as sin x and cos x are related to a circle ).

•

**Integrals involving hyperbolic sine and cosine:**Use the definitions or properties

or derivatives of sinh x and cosh x to solve integrals involving sinh x and cosh x.

Sometimes it is best to use the definition to convert the hyperbolic sine and/or cosine

into an expression into e

^{x}'s, and sometimes it is best to use the derivatives of sinh x

and cosh x.

**7.9 Other Hyperbolic Functions**

•

**Definitions and properties of the remaining four hyperbolic trig functions:**

Define the remaining four hyperbolic trig functions in terms of sinh x and cosh x.

Be able to write these four functions in terms of e

^{x}'s using these definitions. Prove

identities involving these functions using these definitions.

•

**Derivatives of the remaining four hyperbolic trig functions:**Find the derivatives

of these four functions using their definitions and the derivatives of sinh x and

cosh x, or by using their definitions in terms of e

^{x}'s. Sketch graphs of these functions

using this derivative information.

•

**Integrals involving hyperbolic trig functions:**As with sinh x and cosh x, be able

to solve integrals involving the other four hyperbolic trig functions.

•

**Inverse hyperbolic trig functions:**Find formulas for the inverses of the six hyperbolic

trig functions by using their definitions in terms of e

^{x}'s.

•

**Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic trig functions:**Use these expressions for the

inverse hyperbolic trig functions to calculate their derivatives. See in particular exercises

19, 20, and 21 in 7.9. Memorize and be able to use these derivatives.

•

**Integrals involving inverse hyperbolic trig functions and their derivatives:**

Use the derivatives of the inverse hyperbolic trig functions to solve integrals, either by

u-substitution or by recognizing an integrand as the derivative of one of the inverse

hyperbolic trig functions.

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