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PRE-ALGEBRA CHAPTER 2 EVALUATE EXPRESSIONS, WORKSHEET TRIANGLE EXPRESSIONS ANSWERS
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Writing Skills Test (An objective question approach)
The Writing Skills Test measures students’ understanding of the following conventions of standard written English:

Punctuation. Items in this category test the use and placement of commas, colons, semicolons, dashes, parentheses, apostrophes, and quotation, question, and exclamation marks. Mean Rank
2.6

High
68%

Medium
28%

Low
3%

Grammar. Items in this category examine the use of adjectives, adverbs, and conjunctions; and test the agreement between subject and verb, and between pronouns and their antecedents. 2.7

High
80%

Medium
15%

Low
3%

Sentence structure. Items in this category test relationships between/among clauses, the placement of modifiers, and shifts in construction. 2.8

High
85%

Medium
13%

Low
0%

Organization. Items in this category test the organization of ideas and the relevance of statements in context (order, coherence, unity). 2.8

High
85%

Medium
13%

Low
0%

Strategy. Items in this category examine the appropriateness of expression in relation to audience and purpose, the strengthening of writing with appropriate supporting material, and the effective choice of statement of theme and purpose. 2.6

High
68%

Medium
18%

Low
5%

Style. Items in this category test precision and appropriateness in the choice of words and images, rhetorically effective management of sentence elements, avoidance of ambiguous pronoun references, and economy in writing. 2.5

High
63%

Medium
20%

Low
8%

W2 - Comments on Writing Skills Test

This is easier to learn for most (than other categories) but too many teachers don't teach the idea of punctuation - that we are deciding how long we want readers to pause - and that that impacts meaning. This needs to be included with pat punctuation rules. Writing is thinking. Most students (people) don't know that they think about a give reading (topic) until they risk/commit those unformed thoughts to ink. This is not stressed enough. Formulating a sentence is formulating a thought. I'm appalled at how little writing is required in some courses. Strategy and Style: Important.

Most students have had no exposure as to how language fits various audience-voice-subject relationships or how to intentionally construct those relationships.

Students write a research paper on a career they are interested in. If they don't use correct punctuation, grammar, sentence structure and organization they receive a lower grade on the assignment. Strategy: Students' research papers must incorporate this skill or they will receive a lower grade on this assignment. Style: When Students write a research paper they must demonstrate this skill or they will receive a lower grade on this assignment.

The students must communicate in both written and oral forms. I correct the papers, noting not only interpersonal communications issues, but also the 6 topics to the left.

Overall correct usage is paramount in English composition courses. It's what we teach and evaluate on papers that students write. In the Connect program, each student's paper is returned & publicly reviewed w/grammatical & skills revisions Students work in small discussion groups to craft the elements of an essay by evaluation & choice of individually submitted statements to create a group/collaborative essay.

Effective written communication allows students to demonstrate knowledge of course content and application of concepts in papers and on exams. Variety of writing assignments - partially evaluated on basis by writing skills.

Strategy: More important in 200 level than 200 level classes. Style: Writing assignments.

This area relates directly to the students future success in the business world. My present efforts at supporting this area include notations on turn-in papers plus strong recommendations that they seed assistance from the writing center. Strategy and Style: I could refer students to (English 109???) business writing.

Punctuation has relevance and emphasis, but I often refer to it as more editing and micro-revisions parts that can be "easily" fixed. We work through overhead exercises as a group. Without a firm grip of grammatical rules, students' writing is often miscommunicated. I make an effort to inject mini grammar lessons in Eng. 081, 082, 083, 101, 102, 103.

Formation of sentences is of high importance in relationship to effective communication skills. We deconstruct and revise sentences constantly through peer review and computer lab exercises. Threading an idea through an essay is a challenging task for students. We concentrate on several components of organization by looking at models of text.

I encourage freedom of expression. However, we do spend time on tone and purpose. Audience awareness is critical in writing. Again, we look at various models for reference.

Without a good foundation in basic English grammar skills, a student of any foreign language is at a disadvantage. He will be lost/confused as to parts of speech, the comparison or contrast of the two languages (English/Spanish) and will not be able to communicate properly if not using punctuation correctly. He will be misunderstood in the foreign language = not able to communicate. Strategy and Style: Extremely important for anyone to be articulate to be able to express ideas & feelings in a way that anyone can understand.

There is a statement in my syllabus regarding my expectation of college level writing & that points would be deducted for grammar, punctuation on formal assignments - not in-class writing. Strategy: Speakers must adapt everything to their audiences. Style: We study a chapter on language - the choice & use of words.

High impact - all activities support the skill.

1)Poorly written project. 2) I correct this on their project. I take off some points if these things are poorly done.

Strategy & Style: 1) Lower impact. 2) I would correct on their project

In composition courses, these 4 elements are of high importance - one of the goals of the writing sequence is to help students master these skills. They of course are less the the focus in 103 & the literature courses but are still expected & relevant. Assigned papers are evaluated on the basis of these 4 elements to a considerable extent. Also worksheets, handouts, computer exercises, etc.

Minimal relationship. Strategy/Style: Not related.

Expression of thoughts & application of ideas learned in course: clearly and consistently

Not related.

Developmental writing courses, as well as English 101, support/develop these skills. Strategy/Style: Supported by both developmental writing and freshman composition courses.

For architecture writing skills are not as important during their education but rather later as they work in their profession..

Punctuation/Grammar/Sentence structure: 1)parallels required written work. 2) Used in the written video speech analysis papers. Organization: 1)Direct relationship to the speech outline. 2) must be able to successfully develop formal outlines (with rules for organization for every speech assignment.) Strategy: Direct relationship to development of speech purpose which has relevance to a particular audience. 2) Use of hypothetical audiences to adapt & adjust speech purpose. Style: 1) Direct relationship to use of style in spoken language. 2) study contrasting use of language style in a variety of speeches.

Students must make written observations and reports in all of our classes.

Punctuation: I correct mistakes in student papers but do not lower grade. Grammar/Sentence Structure/Organization:

As long as the text is coherent, I do not lower grade. Strategy/Style: Students have to give class presentations and a bad strategy might lower their grade.

Punctuation/Grammar: If these interfere with my being able to comprehend their ideas then I return papers to them to correct errors. Sentence structure/organization: All written papers need to be well organized & clearly written.

Students are able to rewrite papers until they get them right or they are clear in their presentation of their ideas.

I assign creative writing in some classes & part of grade is based on punctuation, grammar, spelling, etc.

Students must be able to explain math concepts in grammatically correct sentences. Strategy/style: Not related.

Punctuation: Since I teach speech, punctuation has little impact on the majority of their assessment. However, I do have them use outlining & writing where punctuation is assessed. I teach outlining & stress the importance of standard

English conventions of writing. Grammar/Sentence Structure: Use of standard English grammar is a very important aspect of verbal communication, whether written or oral. We discuss the differences in the use of language when writing & speaking and the need for employing standard English grammar in formal presentations. Organization: This is the key element to producing an understandable message whether in written or oral form. The major emphasis in my class in on producing well organized verbal (oral) messages. We employ outlining & other written activities to provide a foundation from which to practice the oral message. Strategy/Style: While students ability to use strategy & style in written form is not directly employed in my class, it is directly related to what my students do in orally presenting their messages. All that they learn in English class applies to speech. I teach all of these same skills only in reference to the construction of oral messages.

Punctuation/Grammar/Sentence Structure: While I make corrections, this areas is not a major grade influence.

Organization: Logical presentation of an argument, report , or explanation is very important. Strategy/Style: Essay questions on exams - organizing an idea with supporting facts. Preparing lab reports, reporting & interpreting results accurately & reports on articles sharing the contents, showing the authors approach, pointing out bias..

Papers plus research abstracts are given. These aspects are considered in grade.

Punctuation is taken into account in grading, and is certainly taught, but I think it's important to make a distinction between punctuation that demonstrates one's knowledge of structure, and conventions such as quotation marks.

The former receives the most attention and concern. By definition, grammar is a significant component of English comp. instruction, especially ESL. As with punctuation, however, the distinction needs to be made between grammatical errors that interfere with meaning or mark students socially in a way they may not want to be identified, or that could bias future instructors, and relatively insignificant grammar errors such as article use. Style is important; however for the non-native speaker in developmental or freshman comp, it's not an instructional priority, nor are students heavily evaluated on it. For students who are ready for the challenge, however, it should be made available.

Punctuation/Grammar/Sentence Structure: These all represent the building blocks of an essay. These are all components that I mark on essays. Students' success with these elements is reflected in their grade. I don't take classtime to go over this material, but I encourage students to come into the office for individual help. Organization: Organization of ideas is fundamental to writing the essays in my classes. I spend at least one class period a week reinforcing how to organize ideas. I ask students to follow up by coming into the office with outlines & rough drafts so I can help them with organization. I also hand out student sample essays, so they have a model to follow. I provide a checklist of questions students can refer to as they think about organization. Strategy and all it entails is also an important part of student success in my class. I spend at least one class period per week on this component.   After I introduce an assignment, I have a class on strategy & then another one on organization. Style is certainly important, but I often worry more about that at the end of the quarter. Usually most students need more help with fundamentals (strategy, organization, development & grammar.) Near the end (last 2 wks) I usually address this concern.

Punctuation: Although there are some differences in usage, students need to be able to punctuate in Spanish as well as English. Since the differences are few, I correct/explain as needed. Grammar: Students' knowledge of grammar is generally very poor and I find I have to teach English grammar before I can teach Spanish grammar. I wish Engl.  grammar were a prereq. For foreign language study. Sentence Structure: We use the language constantly, both orally and in writing. Organization: As a student progresses in Spanish and does more writing, this becomes more important. At lower levels, students do very basic kinds of writing. Strategy: As one advances in the study of foreign language, this increases in importance, but it is of little importance in 101 through 203. Style: Same as strategy. It is only at the end of Spanish 202 that students begin to have sufficient variety of vocabulary to express an idea in more than one way. Up to this point I consider myself lucky if they can express and idea very simply and correctly.

 

Writing Essay Test (A demonstration approach)
The Writing Essay Test requires students to demonstrate skills in the following areas:

Formulating an assertion about a given issue. Mean Rank
2.5

High
60%

Medium
28%

Low
5%

Supporting the assertion with evidence appropriate to the issues, the position taken, and the given audience. 2.5

High
58%

Medium
28%

Low
5%

Organizing and connecting major ideas. 2.6

High
65%

Medium
23%

Low
5%

W2 - Comments on Writing Essay Test

In my career development course……. students must be able to formulate an assertion about a give issue to do well on a quiz I give them. Students must be able to support assertions they make to do well on a quiz I give them.

Students must be able to organize and connect major ideas to do well on a quiz I give them.

The students must communicate in both written and oral forms. I correct the papers, noting not only interpersonal communications issues, but also the 3 topics to the left.

Students are given writing prompts in class & expected to write a 500 word essay in 50 - 60 minutes, using MS Word in a computer lab.

1. Important in advanced courses I teach for papers assigned. 2. Writing assignments/projects.

Assertion -YES! I can't stress this enough--creating an assertion and following through--often the crux of my courses. Evidence - Again - yes. We review major and minor supporting details constantly--read aloud sessions, presentations, text. Connecting - Again, coherence is necessary--forms links and making links strong through use of transitions is high on my list.

Persuasive speaking is a course requirement. I teach outlining & organization for speeches.

High impact; most activities support this skill development.

If I gave essay tests the impact would be medium. I do some short assignments where writing practice is included.

Less vital in writing sequence, more so in lit. courses. In literature courses, about 50% of the final grade is based on essay tests.

Assertion/Evidence Minimal. Organizing: Somewhat related; courses where projects are assigned may require this.

 Absolute necessity!

All of these skills are addressed and refined in our composition courses, from 091-093 to 101-103.

Assertion: Direct relationship to the study of persuasive speaking. Student must identify a specific issue & formulate an assertion. Evidence: Direct parallel with persuasive speaking. Group exercises to practice the skill & persuasive speech assignment. Organizing: Direct relationship to the speaking assignment. Used for informative & persuasive speeches.

Students write position papers on current political issues. They need to be able to do all of the things mentioned here.

I apply these skills (or ask students to apply them) to case study formulations rather than essay writing. Terms are not the same but the basic task is similar.

Students have to explain why, frequently on test questions.

Not related.

Same explanation as above. Direct cross-application to speech. I teach all of these skills.

Same as previous comments.

In English 101 at the end of the quarter, I talk about strategies for taking essay tests. I ask them to submit questions from their other classes which we turn into essay questions. The students then get practice in setting up their answer -- organization & thesis practice are emphasized.

Low priority in Spanish 101-203. Since 251-253 is conversation and composition, these items acquire medium importance as students do more writing. Those who express themselves well orally and/or in writing in English generally (not always) learn to do so in Spanish as well.

 

Mathematics Test
The Mathematics Test measures students’ mathematical reasoning abilities. It emphasizes quantitative reasoning rather than the memorization of formulas. The content areas tested include:

Pre-algebra and elementary algebra. Items in this category are based on integers and algebraic expressions. Students may be required to solve linear equations. Mean Rank
2.0

High
48%

Medium
25%

Low
8%

Intermediate algebra and coordinate geometry. Items in this category are based on graphing in the standard coordinate plane; or may involve operations with integer exponents, radical and rational expressions, the quadratic formula, linear inequalities in one variable, and systems of two linear equations in two variables. 1.6

High
33%

Medium
20%

Low
25%

Advanced algebra. Items in this category are based on rational exponents; exponential and logarithmic functions; complex number, matrices, inverses of functions, and domains and ranges. 1.3

High
20%

Medium
15%

Low
35%

Trigonometry. Items in this category are based on right triangle trigonometry, graphs of the trigonometric functions, and basic trigonometric identities. 1.0

High
5%

Medium
20%

Low
43%

Introductory calculus. Items in this category are based on limits, continuity, derivatives, and integrals. 0.9

High
3%

Medium
20%

Low
43%

W2 - Comments   on Math Test

General statement on math: 1. Mathematical knowledge and reasoning contributes to student ability to understand and apply scientific research. Foundation for graduate study in the field as well. 2. Coverage of statistics, research methods, etc. relates directly but all content in scientific psychology exposes students to math concepts.  Trigonometry: not directly related. Intro Calculus: Calculus may be especially important for those students planning to pursue a Ph.D. in psychology.

Basic math - enough to function day to day in the society - banking, etc. Geometry is important for the development of logical thinking.

Not related to my content area. (except in figuring out grades)

Pre-and inter-algebra: Large impact if deficient. Practice in lab & lecture situations. I show model problems & them send them home w/ at least 1 practice problem. Adv. Algebra: Small impact if deficient. Show a model & work on not related.

Competency is assessed mainly through tests & quizzes. Projects done outside of class may also contribute, but to a lesser extent. Homework, if completed, & class discussions, & occasional work in groups support the student's development of competency. (Math Assistance Center also is a support in this area.)

Pre-algebra:Quantify ideas and able to express them. Inter algebra, etc. not related at the introductory course level.   

Adv. Algebra, trig. Calculus - not related.

Not related

Not directly related.

Not that applicable to our field.

We look at lots of charts and tables and we discuss methods of survey, research, and statistical analysis. (?) students have to do exercises or statistics.

Basic math skills as applied to basic statistical analysis are all that are necessary for my courses. More basic than the math skills, would be an understanding of the concepts used in statistical analysis & research. I would rate this "concept understanding" as high.

Pre-Algebra: Necessary for success in all math courses

Pre-algebra: Student prep in this areas is essential for success in IaI approved math courses. Inter. Algebra: This is important in many upper level courses. Our math sequence that develops these skills is Math 081,082, & 083. Adv.

Algebra: Same comment as above. Math courses that develop these skills are Math 083, 128 & 131. Trig: These skills are essential for students who need calculus, not the general public (Math 132). Intro Calculus: These skills are essential for any student who needs calculus. Our math courses that cover these skills are Math 231 & 232. 

Note: While math skills are not directly applied in my speech class, the logic that math teaches is very helpful in organizing messages. Furthermore, math skills are often helpful in the consideration of evidence, especially statistical evidence.

Pre-algebra: Some lab exercises in biology require algebraic equations. Inter. Algebra: Preparing graphs to report lab data logarithmic expression of PH scientific notation. Adv. Algebra/trig/calculus: Does not apply with undergraduate 2 yr. Level curriculum in biology.

Some basic formulas are used to compute fitness & health assessments.

Most of this would not be related to my discipline directly. However, I do think it is important for students to have math literacy.

Pre-algebra: They need to be able to measure distances on maps & convert centigrade to Fahrenheit, metric to Eng.   Measure. I teach what they need.

 

Reading Test
The Reading Tests measures reading comprehension as a product of skill in referring, reasoning, and generalizing. Each test consists of passages selected from fiction, the humanities, and the social and natural sciences. Students are required to derive meaning from the passages by

Referring to what is explicitly stated. Mean Rank
2.6

High
83%

Medium
8%

Low
0%

Reasoning to determine implicit meanings. 2.5

High
73%

Medium
15%

Low
3%

Drawing conclusions, comparisons, and generalizations beyond the text. 2.4

High
70%

Medium
15%

Low
3%

W2-Comments Reading Test

Discovering both (explicit, implicit) is essential, therefore I choose texts & readings that can/must be read on multiple levels. Students must look at writer's ideas/experience through the lens of their own and construct meaning from the contrast. This integration of print and person is essential.

In order to complete homework assignments and be prepared for class discussions, students must be able to demonstrate these skills.

The students' understanding of the reading assignments comes into play for successfully completing written exercises and participating in classroom exercises.

Students need to be accurately assessed in a formal testing situation as well as in informal situations because class evaluation is weighted in terms of limited time performance skills. I have students interpret statements.

Essential. Not explicitly taught but much reading assignments.

We read a variety of college level texts and other venues in order to determine and extract explicit information (specifically the main idea). Reading between the lines, informing, and being aware of suggested information again is difficult. I bring in a lot of "real life" examples and pictures/ant to make a point here. Packaging these strategies and taking them into other courses and hopefully careers is another goal we strive for.

Explicit:Very Important! Reasoning/conclusions:Useful to a limited extent in upper level Spanish classes.

Speeches are researched based - therefore students must be able to achieve all of these to successfully prepare a speech.

Very high impact; all activities relate to development of this skill.

High impact for both text reading & lab directions. Lectures include basic information, ask questions to get them thinking about the items, and application & synthesis ex. Some of these practice exercises are used to get them to think.

I don't give reading tests as such, but in 102/103, reading comprehension is crucial & is tested by means of reading quizzes (short answers) & incorporation of source material into student's own work.

Moderately related. Students are expected to read their texts and determine connections. Again, the assessment is mainly tests & quizzes, although some informal assessment is done in class discussions.

Critical to read before understanding & expressing oneself.

All are addressed in our composition courses, particularly Eng. 102. Very important to Lit courses.

Direct relationship to the research for speeches & group work. Required as part of evidence & support for speeches.

Our field requires on-going reading. Even after graduation - "on the job".

For the 200 level courses I teach, reliance on a integorical code does not allow for much variation in thinking.

Synthesizing this information, however, is critical.

Needed to read math books.

Explicit: Students must be able to understand word problems. Reasoning: This skill is not very important in mathematics. Conclusions: Students should be able to synthesize mathematical concepts to make conclusions.

Reading is not only necessary for gaining an understanding of text used in my class but also in the research process when students gather evidence to support their points in a speech. I give a lot of instruction in research and how to read material to locate & apply useful evidence. Students have to be able to identify explicitly stated ideas, determine implicit meaning and draw conclusions, comparisons and generalizations to use evidence.

Students are involved in reading the text, outside reading of scientific journals & reporting the facts to the class.

Analysis of an article/text passage for bias, inappropriate conclusions from the data, incomplete date. Showing the class examples of how the subject matter relates to other situations beyond those expressed - relate to current events (general), current medical/scientific discoveries, unsolved problems in the scientific realm, scientific theories, practical applications in everyday life.

Textbooks & research articles are used in class. Reading ability (…….?) for success.

Students need this skill in every class they will take. In my classes, all the textbooks I use are anthologies of essays.

Students must be able to read the works of others, be able to synthesize the material (by making comparisons & drawing conclusions) because these become the subject matter for the essays they write. In each class I teach, I have students write summaries since this assignment focuses on reading skills & ultimately writing skills.

If they cannot do these things, they cannot understand/learn the explanations in English in the text. I explain in both English & Spanish, give examples, try to lead them through the thinking process step-by-step.

 

Critical Thinking Test
The Critical Thinking Test consists of passages that present one or more arguments in a variety of formats, including case studies, debates, dialogues, overlapping positions, statistical arguments, experimental results, and editorials. The test measures students’ skills in the following areas:

Clarifying and analyzing the elements of an argument. Mean Rank
2.7

High
80%

Medium
15%

Low
3%

Evaluating an argument. 2.7

High
78%

Medium
15%

Low
5%

Extending an argument. 2.6

High
73%

Medium
18%

Low
8%

W2 - Comments on the Critical Thinking Test

Clarifying/analyzing: In my career development course students must be able to demonstrate this skill when we focus on case studies. Evaluating: students must be able to evaluate an argument when we focus on case studies. During dialogues in class students need to be able to extend an argument.

The students receive critiques on these counts from myself, in both written and oral form. This is done regularly throughout the course.

Normalized tests give institutional data that sometimes doesn't make it any lower to teachers. In reading various articles, students are required to clarify and analyze the credibility of the author's logic & extend their own biases to summaries & analyses written in class and at home.

All is necessary for understanding psychological concepts & theories. All of this is embedded throughout the course content and class activities - whether it be reading assignments, written assignments, class discussion, debates, or I presently do not offer enough opportunity for critical thinking outside of class discussions.

This is where the rubber meets the road in my courses. Students struggle with this concept throughout the course. I try my best to stretch their meanings beyond surface value..it takes building their confidence and guiding them into different possibilities, perspectives. Research activities help here..we use the internet and a criteria/evaluation sheet.  Elaboration is another key depending on assignments parameters..but selecting an argument and sticking with it is most challenging.

Critical thinking: Very important in live. Evaluating/extending: Useful to a limited extent in upper level Spanish classes.

Again, persuasive speech is a course requirement. Students must analyze arguments as both speakers preparing them & as audience members listening to them.

High impact; many activities support these skills.

High impact. Discussion groups where group members answer questions and discuss controversial biological topics.

This is the central subject matter in my 102 course. It is also important in 103 where research projects often evolve into argumentative papers. Six argumentative papers are required for my 102. The 103 paper may or may not be argumentative.

Minimal Relationship

Analysis of arguments - comparison of ideas in print, video, and on the internet.

All are relevant to Eng. 102 and 103, but are also covered in other composition classes. Also addressed to some extent in Lit. courses.

Clarifying/Evaluating: An integral part of the study of persuasion. Used in problem solving & decision making speeches & group work. Extending: Integral to persuasion. Used when developing a recommended solution or when attempting to develop the visualization step (either positive or negative outcomes) of the motivated sequence speech.

This is a core topic of my classes. Politics without critical thinking is impossible. I try to teach students that conflict is good if handled appropriately.

All work in my courses require these abilities. My assignments are all designed to shape this behavior in my students so that by quarter end they are all capable of this type of thinking (to various degrees.)

Clarifying: Fundamental in math. Evaluating: Needed to follow concepts.

This is a skill needed in statistics, but not in other areas except courses that contain logic section.

Clarifying: This is an inherent element of speech communication. We listen to arguments during persuasion and analyze key elements. Evaluating: Students are intimately involved in the evaluation of arguments throughout speech.

Every speech that presents an argument is evaluated by both teacher and students. Extending: Students engage in dialogue throughout speech and must be able to extend arguments to be successful. I constantly push students to argue positions using Socratic techniques. Students in speech must be able to employ all 3 of these critical thinking skills if they hope to be successful in speech.

Most emphasis in lab-performing experiments to support/reject a hypothesis. Students must learn how to form a valid hypothesis, how to test this idea, how to collect & analyze the data, how to draw valid conclusions & decide how this information can be used to refine/change the hypothesis & proceed forward.

Varying viewpoints are presented in a variety of health issues. Students need to present their views & back it up in written form & in class discussion.

The area of critical thinking is tied very closely to my discipline of English. All of the basic composition classes (English 101, 102 & 103) require students to be able to present an argument when they write. Thus, they need to understand the basics and know how to evaluate the soundness of what they are planning to present. I spend time on class talking about the elements of argument and how to use them in writing.

Not really related in 101-203 classes

 

Science Reasoning Test
The Science Reasoning Test measures scientific reasoning skills rather than recall of scientific content or a high level of skill in mathematics or reading proficiency. The test presents materials in three different formats:

Data representation format. Students are presented with graphic and tabular material similar to that found in science journals and texts. The items associated with this format measure skills such as graph reading, interpretation of scatterplots, and interpretation of information presented in tables, diagrams, and figures. Mean Rank
2.2

High
50%

Medium
33%

Low
15%

Research summaries format. Students are provided with a description of one experiment or of several related experiments. Items in this format focus upon the design of experiments and the interpretation of experimental results. 1.9

High
38%

Medium
33%

Low
15%

Conflicting viewpoints format. Students are presented with several hypotheses or viewpoints that are mutually inconsistent owing to different premises, incomplete or disputed data, or differing interpretations of data. Items in this format measure students’ skills in understanding, analyzing and comparing alternative hypotheses or viewpoints. 2.1

High
48%

Medium
28%

Low
10%

W2 - Comment on the Scientific Reasoning Test

Data:Students in my career development course need to be able to interpret employment information presented in tables, diagrams, and figures otherwise they can't complete homework assignments. Conflicting viewpoints: Students in my career development class need to be able to understand, analyze, and compare alternative points of view to be prepared for class discussions.

Students read the results of experiments & are asked to develop survey & interview questions based on the hypotheses presented in the literature. Students then are asked to synthesize survey results to analyze preliminary data that they've gathered.

Essential to scientific psychology. Reading assignments, class projects, lectures, etc.

Data: We review some graphical material and interpret different formats. Research: Deconstructing how ideas relate is important. Conflicting views: Work more in Eng. 103 here.

Some use in life - goes back to being able to read & understand content which would require a basic background in science. No use in Spanish.

Students would use these skills only as they might relate to research for their speeches.

Data: Medium impact; we do teach this in the reading and study skills courses. Research: Medium impact; We do teach how to write summaries, but not in this specific format. Conflict views: Medium impact; taught directly in some courses & indirectly in others.

High impact. Many lab students act as scientists to hypothesize, design experiments, collect data & analyze it. They most often work in groups and must present & defend the work to group members & to me.

Not related. Conflicting viewpoints: We often do these kinds of projects in 102 & 103.

Math 135, statistics, has a moderate relationship with Data & Research. Conflicting viewpoints: minimal relationship.

Economics and statistics use the scientific method.

I teach OCC/VOC courses & therefore have students that are more talented & competent at hands on & visual achievements. When these students have to produce a written document they usually have problems.

Data: Needs to understand how to interpret data for evidence. Applies data to arguments developed in persuasion or evidence for informational speech. Research: Needs to see the relationship of research outcomes to proposed recommendations. Is able to apply research to message. Conflicting viewpoints: Needs to be able to examine opposing views & understand them. Applies through comparison & contrast to the argument developing for the persuasive message.

Data: We use lots of graphs & tables all the time. Research: We discuss and interpret experiments occasionally.

Conflicting viewpoints: This is one of the major requirements in my class; present and discuss opposing viewpoints.

Papers assigned to students utilize data presented in this manner. Correct analysis of this data is critical to their final decision about the case they are writing on. Ability to recognize their own conflicting views is critical to their success on case papers.

Data: Student must have these skills in math. Conflict: This would occur in more advanced statistics courses than

Students have to conduct research of a variety of sources to find support for the ideas in a speech. Much of this information is scientific and appears in both text and data representation format. They also often read conflicting viewpoints. Students have to ethically and appropriately apply this information in their speeches. We discuss the use of primary sources for support, often scientific sources and how to ethically & appropriately apply this information in

Data/Research: Students read about experiments in scientific journals & are tested on their ability to interpret the data.

They also must collect & process their own data in lab. I explain how certain types of experiments are designed.

Conflict: This area requires more work on my part - I try to explain why one hypotheses is more reasonable than another. Students then discuss the merits of conflicting hypotheses, identify assumptions that have been made. If an experiment produces unexpected results, we discuss possible causes. We discuss sources of error that might influence outcome, or biases that may occur. I give examples of faculty reasoning.

Health Stats - research articles are reviewed & summarized. These skills are needed.

As with math, I think students should have a grasp of science. I think even though the subject matter might be different, the skills of reading, synthesizing, interpreting, etc., will be used in many of their classes, including English.