Quadratic by square root method , solving second order linear difference equation ,   finding the least common denominator for two rational expressions, how to calculate greatest common divisor
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Solve the one-dimensional initial value problem using a Fourier series solution.

\begin{eqnarray*}u_{tt}-u_{xx} &=& 0 \quad \mbox{for} \quad 0</DIV><P></P><BR CLEAR=


Given the first order partial differential equation

\begin{displaymath}u u_x + u_y=0, \quad u(x,0)=h(x)\end{displaymath}

Is the initial curve a characteristic of the problem?(b)
Use the method of characteristics to find a solution (c)
Find a general solution (d)
Impose the boundary condition on the general solution to obtain a solution to this problem. (e)
Discuss the global existence and uniqueness of these solutions in terms of properties of the function h.


Find the solution of the initial value problem

\begin{eqnarray*}u_{tt} &=& \Delta u \\u(x,0) &=& g(x) = x_1^2+x_2^2,\quad u_t(x,0)=h(x)= 0\end{eqnarray*}

by means of Kirchhoff's formula in three dimension

\begin{displaymath}u(x,t)=\frac{1}{4 \pi}\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\left( t \...... +\frac{t}{4 \pi} \int_{\vert\xi\vert} h(x+ct\xi) dS_{\xi}\end{displaymath}

and by means of the solution for the two dimensional wave equation

\begin{eqnarray*}u(x_1,x_2,t)&=&\frac{1}{4 \pi}\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\lef......x_2+ct\xi_2) d\xi_1 d\xi_2}{\sqrt{1-\xi_1^2-\xi_2^2}} \right)\end{eqnarray*}


Consider the initial/boundary value problem with forcing term

\begin{eqnarray*}u_{tt} &=& \Delta u + f(x,t) \quad \mbox{for} x\in\Omega\sub......box{for}\quad x \in \partial\Omega \quad \mbox{and}\quad t>0.\end{eqnarray*}

Use Duhamel's principle and an expansion of f in eigenfunctions to obtain a formal solution.


Consider the following Initial Value Problem (IVP):

 \begin{displaymath}\begin{array}{rcl}\frac{\partial^2u}{\partial t^2}-c^2\Delt......l u}{\partial t}(x,0)&=&h(x),\ x\in{\bf {\rm R}}^n.\end{array}\end{displaymath}(1)

Prove the uniqueness and continuous dependence parts of the followingtheorem: Suppose g, h have compact support. Then () has aunique solution that depends continuously on the initial data g, h.(You do not have to prove the existence of a solution.)6.
Consider again the IVP (). Prove the following theorem:Suppose u is a C2 solution of (), and suppose that forsome $x_0\in{\bf {\rm R}}^n$and some t0>0, g and h are both identically zeroon the set

\begin{displaymath}\left\{x\in{\bf {\rm R}}^n\,:\,\vert\vert x-x_0\vert\vert\le ct_0\right\}.\end{displaymath}

Then u(x0,t0)=0.7.
Let $\Omega$be a smooth, bounded domain in ${\bf {\rm R}}^n$.(a)
Suppose $u\in C^2(\Omega)$satisfies $\Delta u\ge 0$in $\Omega$.Prove that

\begin{displaymath}y\in\Omega\Rightarrow u(y)</DIV><BR CLEAR=

Suppose u,v are two function in$C^2(\Omega)\cap C(\overline{\Omega})$,and

\begin{displaymath}\Delta u=f,\ \Delta v=f\end{displaymath}

both hold in $\Omega$,where $f\in C(\Omega)$.Prove that if

\begin{displaymath}\vert u(x)-v(x)\vert\le\epsilon,\ \forall x\in\partial\Omega\end{displaymath}

holds, then

\begin{displaymath}\vert u(x)-v(x)\vert\le\epsilon,\ \forall x\in\overline{\Omega}\end{displaymath}

also holds.8.
Let $\Omega$be a smooth, bounded domain in ${\bf {\rm R}}^n$.(a)
Write down a well-posed Initial-Boundary Value Problem (IBVP) forthe heat equation.(b)
State and prove a maximum principle for your (IBVP).(c)
Use the maximum principle to prove uniqueness and continuous dependenceon the initial conditions for your IBVP.9.
Consider the boundary value problem:

\begin{eqnarray*}Lu = [ -\frac{d}{dx}(p(x)\frac{d}{dx}) + q(x)]u = f \\u(0) = u'(\pi) = 0\end{eqnarray*}

Find the quadratic functional I(v) associated with this BVP andidentify the energy in v from the energy inner product a(v,w).(b)
Suppose that a function u minimizes I(v) over the wholeadmissible space

\begin{displaymath}H_0^1 = \{w \in H^1 : w \,\,\,\mbox{{\rm satisfies essential boundaryconditions}}\}.\end{displaymath}

Let Sh be any closed subspace of H01 and letuh minimize I(vh) in Sh. Show that the function uh alsominimizes the energy in Sh:

\begin{displaymath}a(u-u^h,u-u^h) = {\rm min}\{a(u-v^h,u-v^h) \, : \, v^h \in S^h \}\end{displaymath}

Show that the function uh is the projection of u onto Sh withrespect to the energy inner product. That is, the error u-uh isorthogonal to Sh.(d)
Show that the function uh satisfies the discrete weak form ofthe BVP:

\begin{displaymath}a(u^h,v^h) = (f,v^h) \,\,\,\,\, \mbox{{\rm for all}} \,\, v^h \in S^h\end{displaymath}

Consider a bilinear quadrilateral finite element with Cartesiancoordinates (2,1), (4,1), (a,b) and (2,4).(a)
Find the isoparametric coordinate transformations, $x=x(\xi,\eta)$and$y=y(\xi,\eta)$.(b)
Determine any algebraic conditions on the location of point (a,b) inorder to ensure an invertible transformation.11.
Show that in a mesh of bilinear quadrilateral finite elements,continuity of the interpolation functions at the vertices does notnecessarily imply continuity of the interpolation functions throughout thewhole domain.12.
Given the boundary value problem:

\begin{eqnarray*}-\mbox{\boldmath$\nabla$ } \cdot (\mbox{\boldmath$A$ } \cdot \n......) \cdot \mbox{\boldmath$n$ } = t_0 \,\,\, {\rm on} \,\, \Gamma_2\end{eqnarray*}

where f, a00 and the components of the matrix $\mbox{\boldmath$A$ }=[a_{ij}]$are functions of x and y in a two-dimensional domain $\Omega$,and u0and t0 are known functions on portions $\Gamma_1$and $\Gamma_2$of theboundary. (Note: $\Gamma_1$and $\Gamma_2$are open sets which do notintersect and the union of their closures is the closure of$\partial\Omega$.)Find the weak formulation of this boundary value problem. Specify allcontinuity and integrability requirements (i.e. the function spaces towhich all functions belong).13.
Consider the IVP

\begin{eqnarray*}\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}+a\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}&=&......-\infty0,\\u(x,0)&=&\phi(x),\ -\infty</DIV><P></P><BR CLEAR=(a)
Write down two finite difference schemes for this problem, one that isconditionally stable and one that unconditionally stable.(b)
Use von Neumann analysis to prove that the two schemes you presentreally have the specified stability properties.14.
Consider solving Poisson's equation on the unit square:

\begin{eqnarray*}-\Delta u&=&f(x,y),\ (x,y)\in\O=\left\{(x,y)\,:\,0</DIV><P></P><BR CLEAR=(a)
Write down the finite difference scheme for this BVP using thestandard five-point stencil for the Laplacian.(b)
Write down the finite element equations for the same BVP usingLagrange triangles on a regular mesh like the one shown below.
The nodes in the mesh should be labeled from left to right, beginning withthe bottom row. (The above mesh has 128 triangles on an $8\times 8$grid.You should assume 2n2 triangles on an $n\times n$grid.)(c)
What are the similarities and differences between the two schemes?Discuss the accuracy of each method.15.
Consider the following initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) for thewave equation:

\begin{eqnarray*}\frac{\partial^2u}{\partial t^2}-c^2\frac{\partial^2u}{\partial......0,t)&=&0,\ t>0,\\\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}(L,t)&=&0,\ t>0.\end{eqnarray*}

Write down a finite difference scheme that is second-order in bothtime and space.(b)
Explain how the initial and boundary conditions are incorporated intoyour scheme.(c)
Give the stability condition for your scheme.

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