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# Information and Logic

S is the set of all the words in English

A web page is an element in the algebra

The Second Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary contains
full entries for W? words in current use, and
M? obsolete words

The Second Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary contains
full entries for 171,476 words in current use, and
47,156 obsolete words.

1/n  words are nouns, 1/v verbs,

A search is finding all the subsets (web pages) that
consistent with the subset defined by the query

A query is an element in the algebra

Examples of Boolean Algebras

• 0-1 ( two valued ) Boolean algebra
OR / AND

Arithmetic Boolean algebras (Boolean integers)
lcm / gcd

Algebra of subsets = any Boolean algebra
union / intersection

An Amazing Theorem

Representation Theorem (Stone 1936):

Every finite Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a Boolean
algebra of subsets of some finite set S.

 Algebra 1 Algebra 2 elements elements operations /elements operations /elements

Marshall Stone

 Marshall Stone 1903-1989 Proved in 1936 90AB = years After Boole The Boolean Syntax invented in 1847 has a unique representative semantic!!! Marshall entered Harvard in 1919 intending to continue his studies at Harvard law school ; fell in love with Mathematics , and the rest is history… Harlan Fiske Stone 12th Chief Justice of the US 1941-1946 Marshall had a passion for travel. He began traveling when he was young and was on a trip to India when he died....

Arithmetic Boolean Algebras
Isomorphic to Algebra of Subsets

The set of divisors of a Boolean integer
{1,2,3,6}
The operations : lcm and gcd
The special elements: 1 and 6

 Isomorphic to:

Arithmetic / Subsets

An Amazing Theorem

Representation Theorem (Stone 1936):
Every finite Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a Boolean
algebra of subsets of some finite set S.

Two Boolean Algebras with m elements are isomorphic

Every Boolean algebra has 2k elements

Provides intuition beyond the axioms:
We can 'naturally' reason about results in Boolean algebra

Algebra of Subsets

 Venn Diagram John Venn 1834 - 1923

 graphical representation of all possible subsets

Correcting Errors

Three erasures are not correctable...

Is one error correctable?

The First nontrivial Code

 Richard Hamming 1915-1988

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