# Single-Variable Calculus

## Review of Exponents

Calculus is possibly the greatest single breakthrough in the history of

mathematics. It has applications in nearly every field of science and
engineering

and greatly enhances our understanding of the world around us.

What’s really great is that even though calculus is such a powerful tool , it’s

not very hard to learn. There are just two main concepts in calculus; the

derivative and the integral. Both of these deal with rates of change of a

function .

Before diving into calculus itself, it is traditional to
review the basic

properties of exponents , logarithms, and functions since these concepts are

so important in calculus. In this first lesson we will focus on exponents.

In mathematics the exponent is simply a short-hand
notation for multiplying

a number by itself a certain number of times. For example, if I wanted

to multiply 2 by itself 7 times instead of writing 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 I

could use exponential notation and simply write 2^{7}. Or for the more general

case:

This is the meaning of exponential notation for n as a
positive integer,

however exponential notation is also meaningful when n is not an integer

and not positive. The following formulas define the meaning of exponential

notation for these other cases.

exponent of zero | |

negative exponents | |

fractional exponents |

While these definitions may not seem intuitively obvious,
they begin to

make more sense in light of the laws of exponents . These are the four main

laws of exponents.

exponent addition | |

exponent subtraction | |

a power raised to another power | |

a product raised to a power |

These four laws stem directly from the meaning of the
exponent for positive

integer powers. They can be derived with some simple algebra , and I

will leave this as an exercise for the reader. Once you are convinced that

these laws are correct, they can then be used to derive the formulas given

earlier for exponents of zero, negative numbers, and non-integers

To illustrate that anything raised to the zeroth power is
equal to one, we

can simply divide a number to a power by the same number to the same

power. From elementary school we know that anything divided by itself is

just one, and from the law of exponent subtraction we know that this is also

equal to that number to the zeroth power.

To show that anything raised to a negative power is equal
to the reciprocal

of that number raised to the same positive power we can do a similar exercise.

We start by simplifying the following expression using the subtraction law of

exponents.

We also could have applied the addition law of exponents
to the denominator

of the previous expression .

And therefore:

The only thing left to demonstrate is the relation between
fractional exponents

and roots. This can also be explained using the laws of exponents.

First of all, let’s see how raising something to the one-half power gives the

square root using our law for raising a power to another power.

Since x is the square root of x^{2} we can see that raising
a number to the

one-half power gives the same answer as if we took the square root. In the

formula above we could just as easily have replaced all the 2’s with some

variable , say a, to obtain a general formula.

So that we’re not restricted only to numerators of 1, we
can apply the

rule for powers raised to a power once again to obtain our final formula.

All of these properties of exponents will come in very
handy when we

need to simplify expressions into a more calculus-friendly form, or for just

simplifying a final answer to avoid undue embarrassment.

With a little practice the properties of exponents will
become second

nature to you if they are not already. If you need practice be sure to try the

problems given in the quiz that accompanies this lesson.

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