 # GRADES EIGHT THROUGH TWELVE MATHEMATICS

Geometry

 The geometry skills and concepts developed in this discipline are useful to all students. Aside from learning these skills and concepts, students will develop their ability to construct formal, logical arguments and proofs in geometric settings and problems. 1.0 Students demonstrate understanding by identifying and giving examples of undefined terms, axioms, theorems, and inductive and deductive reasoning. 2.0 Students write geometric proofs, including proofs by contradiction. 3.0 Students construct and judge the validity of a logical argument and give counterexamples to disprove a statement. 4.0 Students prove basic theorems involving congruence and similarity. 5.0 Students prove that triangles are congruent or similar, and they are able to use the concept of corresponding parts of congruent triangles. 6.0 Students know and are able to use the triangle inequality theorem . 7.0 Students prove and use theorems involving the properties of parallel lines cut by a transversal, the properties of quadrilaterals, and the properties of circles. 8.0 Students know, derive, and solve problems involving the perimeter, circumference, area, volume, lateral area, and surface area of common geometric figures. 9.0 Students compute the volumes and surface areas of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres; and students commit to memory the formulas for prisms, pyramids, and cylinders. 10.0 Students compute areas of polygons, including rectangles, scalene triangles, equilateral triangles, rhombi, parallelograms, and trapezoids. 11.0 Students determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric figures and solids. 12.0 Students find and use measures of sides and of interior and exterior angles of triangles and polygons to classify figures and solve problems. 13.0 Students prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles. 14.0 Students prove the Pythagorean theorem. 15.0 Students use the Pythagorean theorem to determine distance and find missing lengths of sides of right triangles. 16.0 Students perform basic constructions with a straightedge and compass, such as angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors, and the line parallel to a given line through a point off the line. 17.0 Students prove theorems by using coordinate geometry, including the midpoint of a line segment, the distance formula, and various forms of equations of lines and circles. 18.0 Students know the definitions of the basic trigonometric functions defined by the angles of a right triangle. They also know and are able to use elementary relationships between them. For example, tan(x) = sin(x)/cos(x), (sin(x))2 + (cos(x))2 = 1. 19.0 Students use trigonometric functions to solve for an unknown length of a side of a right triangle, given an angle and a length of a side. 20.0 Students know and are able to use angle and side relationships in problems with special right triangles, such as 30°, 60°, and 90° triangles and 45°, 45°, and 90° triangles. 21.0 Students prove and solve problems regarding relationships among chords, secants, tangents, inscribed angles, and inscribed and circumscribed polygons of circles. 22.0 Students know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including rotations, translations, and reflections.

Algebra II

 This discipline complements and expands the mathematical content and concepts of algebra I and geometry. Students who master algebra II will gain experience with algebraic solutions of problems in various content areas, including the solution of systems of quadratic equations, logarithmic and exponential functions , the binomial theorem, and the complex number system . 1.0 Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute value . 2.0 Students solve systems of linear equations and inequalities (in two or three variables ) by substitution , with graphs, or with matrices. 3.0 Students are adept at operations on polynomials, including long division. 4.0 Students factor polynomials representing the difference of squares, perfect square trinomials , and the sum and difference of two cubes. 5.0 Students demonstrate knowledge of how real and complex numbers are related both arithmetically and graphically . In particular, they can plot complex numbers as points in the plane. 6.0 Students add, subtract, multiply , and divide complex numbers. 7.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, divide, reduce , and evaluate rational expressions with monomial and polynomial denominators and simplify complicated rational expressions, including those with negative exponents in the denominator. 8.0 Students solve and graph quadratic equations by factoring, completing the square, or using the quadratic formula. Students apply these techniques in solving word problems. They also solve quadratic equations in the complex number system. 9.0 Students demonstrate and explain the effect that changing a coefficient has on the graph of quadratic functions; that is, students can determine how the graph of a parabola changes as a, b, and c vary in the equation y = a(x-b)2+ c. 10.0 Students graph quadratic functions and determine the maxima, minima, and zeros of the function. 11.0 Students prove simple laws of logarithms. 11.1 Students understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents. 11.2 Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of real numbers, exponents, and logarithms have been applied correctly at each step. 12.0 Students know the laws of fractional exponents , understand exponential functions, and use these functions in problems involving exponential growth and decay. 13.0 Students use the definition of logarithms to translate between logarithms in any base. 14.0 Students understand and use the properties of logarithms to simplify logarithmic numeric expressions and to identify their approximate values. 15.0 Students determine whether a specific algebraic statement involving rational expressions, radical expressions, or logarithmic or exponential functions is sometimes true, always true, or never true. 16.0 Students demonstrate and explain how the geometry of the graph of a conic section (e.g., asymptotes, foci, eccentricity) depends on the coefficients of the quadratic equation representing it. 17.0 Given a quadratic equation of the form ax2 + by2 + cx + dy + e = 0, students can use the method for completing the square to put the equation into standard form and can recognize whether the graph of the equation is a circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola . Students can then graph the equation. 18.0 Students use fundamental counting principles to compute combinations and permutations. 19.0 Students use combinations and permutations to compute probabilities. 20.0 Students know the binomial theorem and use it to expand binomial expressions that are raised to positive integer powers. 21.0 Students apply the method of mathematical induction to prove general statements about the positive integers. 22.0 Students find the general term and the sums of arithmetic series and of both finite and infinite geometric series. 23.0 Students derive the summation formulas for arithmetic series and for both finite and infinite geometric series. 24.0 Students solve problems involving functional concepts, such as composition, defining the inverse function and performing arithmetic operations on functions. 25.0 Students use properties from number systems to justify steps in combining and simplifying functions.
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