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• The control-flow statements of a
programming language specify the order
in which computations are performed.
• When an iteration is repeated until some
termination criterion is met.
• Other ways to exit from a loop construct
• Functions break large computing tasks
into smaller ones, and enable people to
build on what others have done instead of
starting over from scratch.
• Appropriate functions hide details of
operation from part of the program that
don’t need to know about them.
• Use local variables that exist only while
the function is executing. Local variables
are distinct from variables of the same
names in the workspace.
• Function files are reusable.
• Specific tasks can be encapsulated into
functions. This modular approach enables
development of structured solutions to
complex problems .
• Function [argouts] = funName(argins)
Variable numbers of input /pout parameters
• Each function has internal variables, nargin and
nargout can find how many input/output arguments.
• Allow a single function to perform multiple related
• All functions assume default values for some
inputs, thereby simplifying the use of the function
for some tasks.
function [a, b] = myfun(x,y)
% this function does
% input variables:
% x ……
% y ……
% a ……
% b ……
A Case Study
• Problem: Building a simulation program which will
receive the same input like human subjects and do
the same test.
• Main structure
• Programming style varies from programmer to
programmer. It is good to stick to common
• A consistent programming style gives your
programs a visual familiarity that helps the
reader quickly comprehend the intention of the
• A programming style consists of
- visual appearance
- conventions used for variable names
- documentation with comment statements
• Indent switch and loop blocks
• Use meaningful variable names
• In- line comments %
• The best way is to assemble a whole program
from well designed small functions. This will
enhances readability and testing.
• A function interacts with other code through
input and output arguments and global
variables. The use of arguments is almost
always clearer than the use of globals.
• Any block of code appearing in more than one
m-file should be considered for packaging as
• Each function can just do one task and should
occupy roughly one screen. If your function is
much longer, then you may want to consider to
splitting it into two or more separate functions.
• Every 5-10 lines of code should be accompanied
by comments. However, commenting trivial
operations such as incrementing of index
variables is not necessary .