Summary of Results for First 3 Lectures
We have followed Section 3.1 and 4.4 of the text .
I. DISCRETE TIME QUEUES AND STABILITY (SECTION 3.1 OF TEXT)
A. Discrete Time Queues
One- Step Dynamic Equation for Discrete Time Queues:
Sample path inequality :
B. Strong Stability
Definition 1: A discrete time queue with backlog process U(t) is strongly stable if:
Definition 2: A network of discrete time queues is strongly stable if all individual queues are strongly stable.
Lemma 1: Suppose that for all t (for some finite bound ). Then if U(t) is strongly stable, we
Proof: The proof is beyond the scope of this course. The
interested reader can find the proof in the appendix
We had definitions of and A(t) being admissible with rates and , respectively (given in Section 3.1 of
text). The assumption is part of admissibility, and will be assumed to hold throughout this course.
Note that if is an i.i.d. sequence with a bounded , then it is admissible. Likewise, if is
an i.i.d. sequence with bounded first and second moments, then it is admissible.
Theorem 1: (Stability Theorem) If A(t) is admissible with rate and is admissible with rate , then:
(a) Strong Stability implies that (and so is necessary for strong stability).
(b) implies strong stability (and so is sufficient for strong stability).
Note there is a "singularity" between necessity and sufficiency for . In this case, there are examples where
the queue is strongly stable, and there are other examples where the queue is not strongly stable.
Proof: The proof of part (a) uses (2) together with the fact that (3) holds for strongly stable queues. You are
expected to know the proof.
The proof of (b) was done in class for the i.i.d. case, using Lyapunov drift theory. You are also expected to know
the proof for this i.i.d. case. The proof for the non-i.i.d. case is given in Section 4.4 of the text using the idea of
T-slot Lyapunov drift.
Note that throughout this course we shall use the term "stability" to refer to strong stability.
II. LYAPUNOV DRIFT (SECTION 4.4 OF TEXT)
Let represent a vector process of queue backlogs that evolve in discrete time
. Let L(U) represent a non- negative function , called a Lyapunov function, of the queue backlog
vector. Define the one-step conditional Lyapunov drift as follows:
Theorem 2: (Lyapunov Drift) Suppose that U(t) evolves
according to some probability law , and suppose there
exists a non-negative function L(U) and constants B < ∞ and ε > 0 such that for all timeslots t and all possible
values of U (t), we have:
Then the queueing network is strongly stable (i.e., all queues are strongly stable), and:
Proof: You are expected to know the proof. The proof uses 2 main concepts:
1) Iterated Expectations:
2) Telescoping Sums :
A typical Lyapunov function that is very useful is the following quadratic function :
A fact that is often useful in dealing with quadratic
Lyapunov functions: If then:
This fact is used together with the Lyapunov Drift Theorem to prove part (b) of Theorem 1.
III. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT LYAPUNOV FUNCTIONS, DELAY, AND COMPLEXITY
Lyapunov drift for network stability is first used in  for multi-hop networks, and in  for opportunistic
downlink scheduling. Related quadratic Lyapunov functions are used to make stability and delay claims for N × N
packet switches in  and for multi-hop mobile networks in . Non-quadratic Lyapunov functions can sometimes
be used to make modified or improved statements about delay   . Alternative Lyapunov functions via queue
groupings can often lead to improved complexity and/or delay bounds, see    .
Performance optimal Lyapunov networking will be a large part of this course and will likely be useful for your
projects. However, we will not get to this for another few weeks. Students can always read ahead in the text, and
are also referred to  for a writeup that emphasizes average power minimization and virtual power queues, which
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