# Math 210 Mathematics for K-8 Teachers

**OPTIONAL TEXT **A Problem Solving Approach to
Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers

by Billstein, Libeskind, and Lott (8th Ed).

**REQUIRED READING** You must download chapters in PDF
format (free!). They are required reading and will guide

the mathematical content covered in the course. The chapters contain the
educational goals determined by standards

linked to the curriculum, sample problems from K-8 textbooks, and Released
Items. This combination helps you answer

the questions “What do we need to know?” and “Why do we need to know this?” The
posted chapters also contain the

homework problems.

**SUPPLIES** Portable whiteboard, eraser, and
whiteboard markers.

**BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTION** This course is an
intensive exploration of mathematical concepts and content

commonly taught in grades K-8: problem-solving strategies; sets; functions;
logic (quantifiers, conditional and

biconditional statements); numeration systems; addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of whole numbers;

integers; greatest common divisor and least common multiple; addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of

rational numbers; integer and exponents; decimals and operations on decimals;
percents; and algebraic thinking. See

chapter highlights for more information …

In this course we will focus on the math concepts and
content for grades K-8:

• reconceptualize mathematics you think you already know

• learn mathematics at a much deeper level

• experience various types of reasoning

• learn problem solving strategies

• make connections among mathematical topics

• enjoy and appreciate mathematics

**LECTURE NOTES** Lecture notes will be posted the
evening before class. Please bring your copy of the notes to class.

**CLASS ACTIVITIES** Some class meetings includes
structured cooperative learning activities to reinforce

fundamental mathematical concepts, to learn from others, to increase willingness
to try new problems, and to improve

frequency of success in problem solving. Cooperative learning activities
represent opportunities to meet other students

in the class to form study groups to work on the homework and prepare for the
exams . Cooperative learning activities

also help the class to maintain a positive classroom environment. The problems
contained in the activities summarize

the key concepts for the material covered. The problems we solve together meet
educational goals determined by

standards established by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).

**HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS**

• Grading selected problems. Only selected problems in the
assigned homework will be graded, but all the assigned

problems must be worked for credit and to prepare for the exams. Each homework
assignment is worth 20 points,

with 10 points maximum for “effort” reflected in the submitted homework and 10
points maximum for

“correctness” of the graded problems. Sloppy, careless, slipshod, disheveled,
dowdy, shabby, unconcerned, frowzy,

or neglectful handwriting and improper use of mathematical notation typically
results in less points for “effort,”

therefore homework assignments should be written carefully and concisely.

• Incomplete homework. 1 point will be deducted for each
assigned problem that is skipped, ignored, overlooked,

omitted, disregarded, or forgotten, which can lead to low scores .

• Show your work (SYW). You must show your work (SYW) to
homework questions for credit. Partial credit will be

given as generously as appropriate.

• Link between homework assignments and your course grade.
There is a remarkable, noticeable, prominent,

outstanding, conspicuous, striking correlation between your grade on the
homework assignments and your course

grade, so please give the homework assignments the attention they deserve.

• Help! Many of the problems we solve in class will
resemble the homework problems you have been assigned. You

can work with other students, you can use my office hours, or you can see me
after class for additional help . You

can also receive free walk-in tutoring from the CSUSM Math Lab, located in 1104
Kellog Library.

• Homework assignments and the writing requirement. The
2500 word writing requirement will be exceeded by

these homework assignments.

• Solutions. Detailed answers to the assignments will be made available after the due date.

• Late Homework. Late homework will not be accepted,
without exception (e.g., car trouble, illness, emergency, …).

But your two lowest homework scores will be dropped. You can scan it and submit
by email as a single PDF file.

**EXAMS** The date of the exams will be announced one
week in advance. You should study each weekend to avoid

cramming, which often causes confusion, frustration, disorder, chaos, agitation,
disarray, jumble, tangles, disturbances,

and hullabaloo.

**GRADING** Assigned homework, two exams, and a final
exam will be used to determine the final course grade.

These components have different relative importance:

Exam 1 | Exam 2 | Homework | Final Exam |

100 pts | 100 pts | 100 pts (scaled) | 100 pts |

25% | 25% | 15% | 35% |

Letter grades are assigned according to the following rule: 100-90 = A, 89-80 = B, 79 – 65 = C, 64 – 50 = D, 49 – 0 = F

**EXPECTATIONS** In this course, you will be expected
to

• Communicate ideas orally and in writing.

• Represent mathematical concepts using words, diagrams, algebra, manipulatives,
and contextualized situations.

• Learn problem solving strategies.

• Independently solve problems.

**LOOSE ENDS
**• Students who miss class are still responsible for announcements or changes
regarding the course outline, homework

assignments, due dates, and exam dates.

• Check your email regularly for announcements regarding this class.

• If you need to leave early, please inform me before class.

• You will need a password (TBA) to access posted material.

• Do not “cross-talk” during the lecture—it’s rude, disruptive, and disrespectful to everyone.

• Please put your electronic gadgets in “silent mode” or “manner mode” before class begins.

• Late homework will not be accepted.

• Extra-credit work will be given inclusively beyond the course requirements. Stay tuned!

• Everyone shares the responsibility in making this class an enjoyable place to learn useful mathematics, make

inevitable mistakes, and share constructive ideas. Please help me create such an environment.

**FINAL EXAM:
**MW 9am-10:15am → Mon, May 14 from 9:15am-11:15am

MW 4pm-5:15pm → Mon, May 14 from 4pm-6pm

**CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS**

**Chapter 1 Problem Solving and Reasoning** Inductive
reasoning is introduced as a way to make conclusions or

generalizations. Patterns are described, extended, and generalized. Tables are
used to organize and see patterns. Algebra

is used to generalize some patterns. Polya’s four phases of problem solving
process are discussed, and problem solving

strategies are illustrated with a variety of word problems. The roles of
variables are discussed, along with the

correspondence between word phrases and algebraic expressions . Additive and
multiplicative reasoning are introduced.

An introduction to the language of logic (statements, quantifiers, …) is given.
Euler diagrams and truth tables are used

to represent and analyze arguments.

**Chapter 2 Sets, Place Value, Addition and Subtraction
with Whole Numbers **Sets, operations with sets, and Venn

diagrams are introduced. Place value, expanded form , positional enumeration
systems, counting, word forms, rounding,

estimation, and number sense are discussed. Models of addition and subtraction
are discussed, and additive reasoning is

reinforced. The Singaporean math model is used to represent and solve problems.
Properties are used to promote

number sense and some algebraic reasoning. Fact families help prove basic
interesting algebraic relationships. Base-10

models are used to develop addition and subtraction algorithms. The partial sums
method and partial differences

method are used, along with a variety of other addition and subtraction
algorithms. Estimation is also discussed. Basefive

and base-twelve addition and subtraction are also discussed.

**Chapter 3 Multiplication and Division with Whole
Numbers** Multiplication is defined as combining equal-sized

groups, as recommended in the literature. The various models of multiplication
and division are discussed, along with

the types of word problems that have multiplicative structure. The Singaporean
math model is used to represent and

solve problems. Properties of multiplication, which promote algebraic
understanding and proficiency, are explored

using inductive, deductive, and algebraic reasoning. The three uses of the
Division Algorithm are also addressed. The

partial products method and partial quotients method are used to develop the
traditional multiplication and division

algorithms. Mental arithmetic, adjustments, compatible numbers, and estimation
are also discussed.

**Chapter 4 Number Theory and Integers **The equivalent
meanings of the symbol a|b are given, and divisibility tests

are addressed. The Sieve of Eratosthenes, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic,
LCM, GCF, and Euclidean Algorithm

are discussed. A number theory result is included to give a sense of the
distribution of prime numbers. Clock and

modular arithmetic are discussed. Models are used to help define addition and
subtraction with integers. Inductive

reasoning is used to extend many whole number properties. Patterns are used to
motivate the rule for signs with

integers .

**Chapter 5 Fractions and Rational Numbers** Models of
fractions, nomenclature, symbolic notation, and various

interpretations of fractions are discussed. Division models are used to show
that a fraction is a quotient. The

Singaporean math model is used to represent and solve problems. Inductive
reasoning is used to establish the concept of

equivalent fractions. Common fractions, rounding, estimation, benchmarks for
comparing fractions , cross product rule,

and the density property of fractions are also addressed. Whole number
operations are extended to fractions in a natural

way using diagrams. Additive and multiplicative reasoning are extended to
fractions. The Singaporean math model is

used to represent and solve problems. Algebraic properties of fraction are used
to solve equations.

**Chapter 6 Decimals, Proportional Reasoning, and Real
Numbers **The expanded form of a decimal is emphasized

in the nomenclature for decimals. Comparing decimals, rounding decimals, the
similarities and differences between 4.3

and 4.30, terminating decimals, scientific notation, operations with decimals,
and estimation are discussed. Additive

and multiplicative reasoning are reinforced. Equivalent ratios and the value of
a ratio are emphasized. Proportional

reasoning is introduced and distinguished from additive reasoning. Tables and
fractions are used to proportions

involving “missing value” problems. Proportional reasoning is described
algebraically and graphically . Percent is used

to make comparisons between two quantities. The three types of percent problems
and representational tools are

discussed. Relationships between rational numbers and decimals are discussed.
Relationships between irrational

numbers and decimals are discussed. The real number line is discussed .

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