 # Physics Formula sheet

## I. UNIT PREFIXES

Giga (G)- 1 billion or 109
Mega (M)- 1 million or 106
kilo (k)- 1 thousand or 103
centi (c) - 1 hundreth or 10-2
milli (m) - 1 thousandth or 10-3
micro (μ) - 1 millionth or 10-6
nano (n) - 1 billionth or 10-9

## II. EQUATIONS FOR PHYSICS EXAM

Always For constant acceleration Acceleration from free fall ## III. DYNAMICS

Newton's Second Law Force of kinetic friction where N is the normal force.
Force of static friction where N is the normal force.
Centripetal acceleration, points inward (along radius
of circle ) where v is speed of particle and r is radius of the circular
arc traveled by the particle. Centripetal Force = mass x
centripetal acceleration.
Newton's Law of Gravitation where , the M's are the
masses of the two bodies and R is the distance between
their centers.
For a constant force, work is given by where F is the constant force, d is the displacement and
θ is the angle between the F and d vectors.

Work Energy Principle where KE = Kinetic Energy = (1/2)mv^2
Force from spring where x is the displacement from equilibrium and k is the
spring constant.
Potential energies for conservative forces Work by a conservative force If only conservative forces, Momentum Newton's second Law in terms of momentum  For constant angular acceleration Relation to linear motion Torque Moment of Inertia Rotational Kinetic energy Angular momentum Newton's second law Conditions for equilibrium Density Pressure Pressure at depth h in fluid Atmospheric Pressure Pascal
Equation of continuity Bernoulli Equation Frequency and Period Period of spring Period of Pendulum Wave velocity Sound Intensity where Doppler Effect ## IV. ELECTRIC FORCE AND FIELDS

Force between two point charges q1 and q2 where direction is given by repulsion or attraction of
the charges. I am fine if you use the approximation of Electric field of a point charge q Electric fields relation to Electric force Electric Potential at any point in space defined as electric potential energy per unit charge  Inside a uniform electric field, the change in potential is given by where E is the electric field and d is the distance traveled in the uniform field.
For a point charge Capacitance For Parallel Plates Where is given by the relation In the presence of a dielectric with a dielectric constant , the value of is replaced by Energy stored in a capacitor Ohm's Law V is potential difference in Volts , I is current in Amps,
and R is resistance in Ohms which is denoted by Ω.
For a material, where is the resistivity and L is the length of wire
and A is the cross sectional area.
Temperature dependence Power AC Current Root mean square values Power in AC circuit   Kircho ' s rules
1. Current into a junction = current out of a junction.
2. Total change in potential around closed loop = 0

SI Units for magnetic field Tesla , also sometimes see
Gauss where 104 Gauss = 1 Tesla
Force on electric current in a magnetic field Force on moving charge in a magnetic field, Magnetic field from a long straight wire Induced electromotive force Transformer equation velocity of light = c Law of Reflection: Snell's Law or Law of Refraction For mirrors and thin lenses: Magnification focal length for mirror Interference:
Light interference gives a maxima when the waves have a
total difference of an integer number of wavelength . It is
a minimum when the waves have a half-integer difference.

Wavelength in medium: where is the wavelength in a vacuum.
Double Slit:
Path difference = d sinθ where d is the separation of
the slits and theta is the angle to the screen position
measured from between the slits.
For constructive For destructive Single slit:
Diffraction minima are located at d where n
is an integer.

Reflection on thin films, if the light bounces o of a
higher n material, a phase change of 1/2 λ occurs.

Magnifying glass for relaxed eye, N=near point of the eye, for adults
approx 25 cm. for eye focused at the near point
Telescope Microscope is approximately ## V. ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY   